Updated on 10/20/2021
Kwit, a SAS with a capital stock of €50,010, registered at the Strasbourg Trade and Companies Register under number 819 528 597 with its headquarters at 3, place de Haguenau 67000 Strasbourg, France, represented by Mr Geoffrey KRETZ, as Chairman. (below-mentioned “Kwit” or “we”), are committed to protect and respect your privacy when using its mobile applications (“Application” or “the App”) and its website (“Website”) https://kwit.app (grouped in “ Platform”).
We collect three categories of information:
By using our Platform, you may be asked to provide us with information that is considered Personal Data.
When you use our Platform, we collect information about how you use it to enable the platform to operate and to continuously improve your experience.
A cookie is a small text file stored and/or read by your browser or application, stored in the cookie directory on your device's hard drive (PC, laptop or smartphone), and stored by the websites you visit. It contains a unique and anonymous identifier.
The cookies we use are:
These cookies come from third-party services that we do not control. The Site uses Google Analytics to measure its audience. You can get more information about this by following this link: www.google.com/analytics. The use of Google Analytics cookies is subject to your consent and may be disabled at any time on the Site itself and in your browser settings.
We also use third parties in our Applications such as Firebase Authentication to allow you to stay connected without having to enter your usernames and passwords each time you log in. Firebase Analytics, Flurry Analytics and Facebook Analytics are used to measure the use of the Applications and the effectiveness of our marketing efforts. We finally use SendinBlue to send you informational emails.
Several purposes justify personal data processing and rely on the following legal bases:
Another important reason why we need to process some of your information is that we seek to provide you with the best possible service, to improve it continuously, to protect your Personal Data, to solve technical problems, to establish statistics or to respond to your support requests.
In some cases, we ask for your consent before processing specific data.
Therefore, the processing of personal data that is carried out only after obtaining your consent (which can be withdrawn at any time) is as follows:
On our Site, you choose whether or not to allow the use of analysis and performance cookies. You can change this option in your browser and on the Site.
In our Applications, we ask you if we can send you push notifications to keep you informed of your progress or new features.
On the platform generally, we ask you if we can use your email address to send you personalised offers and the Kwit newsletter.
Each choice can be viewed and modified ( respecting your right to object) in the settings of the application, mobile device, browser, Site or via a link in the emails sent.
Finally, we may need to use your information to comply with the law, for example in the event of a valid judicial requisition, or when we need to take measures to protect our users, or just to respond to your request for a right of access, rectification and opposition or to your other rights regarding your Personal Data.
Since the security of your information is of fundamental importance to us, we require an adequate and sufficient level of security according to the RGPD criteria for the storage of your data.
As far as sharing your data is concerned, it is very simple: we do not share any of your Personal Data with anyone! Only Kwit's authorised personnel will have access to your information and only for support purposes or to improve the services offered by our Platform.
If you use Kwit for a scientific study, only the person in charge of that study will know your identity to preserve your anonymity. You will use an email address provided by the study supervisor to create your account, and we will not be able to identify you in any way. In this specific case, we may share this anonymous data with the study supervisor so that the study can proceed as agreed, under the conditions you have agreed with this supervisor.
Your data is not transferred outside the European Union, except for data transferred and stored on Firebase servers, a platform maintained by Google which is located in the United States of America and which complies with the Privacy Shield, in compliance with our criteria.
We keep your data only during the applicable limitation periods.
This way, we preserve your data as long as you use our Platform. If you no longer use it for 12 months, we will delete all information about you in our possession after this period, except the data strictly necessary to defend our rights during the time of limitation of any action against KWIT.
In the same way, any information that we have been able to anonymise can be preserved indefinitely.
Finally, cookies on your devices are stored for a maximum period of 13 months.
We remind you that you have the right to request the modification and/or removal, for valid reasons, of your information at any time. For more details on this subject, please refer to section 4. Your rights.
For us it is a priority that you keep control over your Personal Data. We would like to remind you that you have the right to access, rectify, object to, define directives concerning the fate of your personal data after your death and delete your data, as well as the right to limit their processing and the portability of the data.
A dedicated section in our Applications and on our Site allows you to modify your choices as to the processing subject to your consent. A link is present in each email that we send you to allow you to unsubscribe from our newsletter. Finally, we respond to all requests concerning your Personal Data when you contact us by email at email@example.com or by post to the address: 3, place de Haguenau, 67000 Strasbourg, France, addressed to Mr. Geoffrey KRETZ.
Finally, we would like to remind you that, if after contacting us you consider, that your rights in regards to your data are not respected, you have the possibility to file a complaint, in the event of a violation of the regulations applicable to the protection of Personal Data, before an authority such as CNIL the French supervisory authority.
Our services are designed for people over 18 years of age. Children aged over 15 and below the age of majority in their country of residence must at least remain under the supervision and consent of their legal representatives. Otherwise, please do not attempt to use our Platform or services.
If you think we may have processed information from minors, please let us know at firstname.lastname@example.org for the removal of it.
If you have any questions about this Policy, do not hesitate to contact us, we would be pleased to answer any request at email@example.com.
Terms and Conditions Updated on 10/20/2021
The website and the application enabling the use of the services offered by KWIT are edited by Kwit, a SAS with a capital stock of €50,010, registered in the Strasbourg Trade and Companies Register under number 819 528 597 with its registered office at 3, place de Haguenau 67000 Strasbourg, France, represented by Mr Geoffrey KRETZ, as its Chairman.
The website is hosted by OVH (2 rue Kellermann — 59100 Roubaix — France).
Publishing Director: Mr Geoffrey KRETZ
KWIT IS AN ONLINE SERVICE PUBLISHED BY THE COMPANY KWIT SAS, WHICH PROVIDES SMOKING CESSATION CONTENT. THE USE OF KWIT IMPLIES FULL ADHERENCE TO THESE GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS: THE USER DECLARES THAT HE/SHE HAS READ AND ACCEPTED IN FULL THE PRESENT GENERAL TERMS AND CONDITIONS IN PLACE ON THE DAY OF HIS/HER REGISTRATION AT KWIT.
Each of the expressions in the present general terms and conditions shall have the following meaning:
The purpose of these general conditions is to define the conditions under which the user can access and use the solutions. No derogation from these General Terms and Conditions may be accepted without the express prior agreement of Kwit. The general conditions constitute the entirety of the existing commitments between Kwit and the user and cancel any previous oral or written commitment relating to the subject matter hereof.
Upon registration, the user undertakes to read these general conditions. He/she also commits to provide accurate and truthful information for the purpose of implementing the proposed functionalities. In particular, the user agrees to not create a false identity likely to mislead, or deceive third parties, and not to use the identity of another natural person.
In the event of the submission of inaccurate or misleading information and the usurpation of a user's identity, Kwit may immediately and without notice or compensation suspend or terminate the user's subscription and refuse access, temporarily or permanently, to all or part of the features. Kwit cannot be held responsible for the accuracy or inaccuracy of the information provided by the user. In the event of a change, the user undertakes to immediately update the data he/she provided at the time of online registration.
Since Kwit does not have the technical means to verify the identity of people who subscribe as members, Kwit is not responsible in the event of usurpation of a user's identity. If the user believes that a person is trying to steal his identity or account, he must immediately inform Kwit at the following email address firstname.lastname@example.org. If it appears that a user distributes or uses his identifiers or avatars in a way which is contrary to their destination, Kwit reserves the right to terminate the user's account without notice.
Minors are allowed to register on the solutions, provided that they have obtained prior consent from their parents or, when applicable, their guardian, to do so. Kwit reserves the right to request written justification at any time, and to carry out any checks, as well as to delete any member account, in the event that such justification is not provided within the time limit set. Kwit will immediately delete any member account upon receipt of a parental request to close the said account and the related content.
When registering, the user must enter his email address and choose a password. The user is responsible for the correct entry of his connection information, if the user provides incorrect information, Kwit cannot be held responsible.
These login details are intended to restrict access to the solutions to the user, to protect the integrity and confidentiality of the data exchanged, they are personal and confidential. The user is entirely responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of his member account, he undertakes to do everything possible not to disclose his login details, in any form whatsoever, including not to record them on any medium, paper or electronic, which could easily be consulted by a third party. He/she alone shall bear the consequences that may result from the use of these credentials by third parties who have become aware of them. Reference is made here to the “advice from the CNIL for a good password” as well as to the ANSSI's recommandations.
The user must immediately notify Kwit in the event of fraud or unauthorised use of his account at the following email address email@example.com.
The user is not allowed to:
OTHERWISE, KWIT RESERVES THE RIGHT TO TAKE ANY NECESSARY ACTION, INCLUDING LEGAL ACTION, AND IN PARTICULAR TO SUSPEND OR REFUSE ACCESS TO THE PLATFORMS OR TO DELETE THE USER'S ACCOUNT.
THE USER MUST HAVE A PREMIUM SUBSCRIPTION TO ACCESS THE ADVANCED FEATURES. ALL OTHER FEATURES ARE AVAILABLE TO THE USER FREE OF CHARGE.
(a) Advanced features content:
The solutions provide advanced features that are accessible via the paid subscription of a package called "Kwit Premium" or "Kwit Pro". the following features are available:
The subscriptions have a price and a duration, they are displayed in the application.
(b) Technical assistance:
Kwit provides the user with technical assistance, any assistance request will be directly addressed to Kwit, at the following address firstname.lastname@example.org, or directly by using the contact form located in the solutions.
The Subscription will be renewed on its due date, under the same conditions of duration and price as the original Subscription, unless a notification requesting cancellation has been sent by the customer prior to the expiry date of the current Subscription, as specified in article 7 "Cancellation". In the specific case where the User paid a special promotional price when they originally took out a Subscription, the Subscription will be renewed at the end of its term at the price corresponding to the original, undiscounted price of the subscription purchased. Kwit will display the end date for the Subscription and a link for the cancellation of the said Subscription on the account details page of the customer's personal account on the Kwit website
The procedure for ordering consists of 3 steps:
All prices are indicated in euros (€), all taxes included and take into account the rate of VAT applicable on the day on which the order is confirmed. The parties agree that any modification to the rate of VAT may also modify the price of the Subscriptions. Kwit reserves the right to change the terms of payment and invoicing without such changes modifying the conditions in force on the day the Subscription was taken out.
Any order where there has been a problem with the payment will not be processed. The totality of the order process is carried out on a secure page using the HTTPS protocol.
In accordance with article 1127-2 of the French Civil Code relating to the conclusion of a contract in electronic form, the client can view the details of their order and the total price, before confirming this and thus expressing their acceptance. The contract will be concluded, in application of the provisions of the French Civil Code, as soon as the client has clicked to confirm the order after having been given an opportunity to correct it. The language proposed for the conclusion of the contract is the English language.
Electronic contracts and texts are conserved in accordance with the conditions laid down in article 1366 of the French Civil Code.
(e) Failure to pay:
In the event of a failure to pay when a Subscription is renewed, Kwit will try again to obtain payment on the following day, and this until they are able to obtain the payment due, to recover the amount unpaid, and this for the duration of the contract.
(f) Law and right of withdrawal:
As an exception to the terms of article L. 221-18 of the French Consumer Law (Code de la Consommation), the 14 day period during which the right of withdrawal may be exercised is not applicable. The right of withdrawal does not apply to digital content supply contracts that are not provided on physical devices whose service began after the consumer's prior express consent and express renunciation of their right of withdrawal in accordance with article L. 121-28, paragraph 13 of the French Consumer Law (Code de la Consommation).
(g) The specific case of purchases made via the mobile and tablet applications:
The solutions are hosted by Google Cloud Platform, acting on behalf of Kwit.
The User may cancel the renewal of their Subscription at any time, at the address https://kwit.app/en/account. The User must click on the link "Unsubscribe". This request for cancellation must be carried out by the User before the expiry date of their Subscription, without which the Subscription will be renewed automatically. Kwit reminds the User that such cancellation does not include any refund of any period of the Subscription remaining outstanding. In the event of any breach of their contractual obligations by either of the parties, the Subscription may be cancelled as of right by the other party after the sending of an electronic message that has remained without effect for a period of one month. The message will indicate the breach or breaches observed.
Kwit is committed to ensuring that the privacy of its users is protected in accordance with applicable regulations and in accordance with its Personal Data Protection Policy. The user acknowledges that he/she has given his/her consent to the collection and processing of his/her personal data by creating an account. The processing operations carried out have been declared to the CNIL under number 2115201.
Users are required to comply with the stipulations of the Data Protection Act mentioned above, the violation of which may lead to criminal sanctions. In the case of personal data to which they may have access, they must refrain from any collection, misuse or, in general, any act likely to harm the privacy or reputation of individuals.
The user has the right to oppose, access and rectify data concerning him/her. He or she may thus require that information concerning him or her that is inaccurate, incomplete, ambiguous or outdated be rectified, completed, clarified, updated or deleted. To exert these rights, the user can send his request directly to Kwit at the following email address email@example.com. Kwit reminds users that they may also object, for legitimate reasons, to the processing of this data.
The user is responsible for the quality, lawfulness and relevance of the personal data communicated to Kwit. He guarantees that he has carried out all the obligations that apply to him, and that he has informed the natural persons concerned of the use that is made of the said data.
As such, he or she warrants Kwit against:
All solution elements, brands, logos, drawings, graphics, graphic charts, icons, texts, training and nutrition content, applications, scripts, functionalities, as well as their selection or combination appearing on the solutions, are the exclusive property of Kwit, and are subject to protection under applicable copyright and industrial property laws.
Kwit grants the user only a strictly personal, non-exclusive, and non-transferable right of use of all elements of the solutions, which does not entail any transfer of the rights referred to above. As such, the user shall refrain from any use contrary to their purpose, namely the regular use of the solutions, in particular, to copy, reproduce, modify, distribute, display or sell, by any means or form whatsoever, in whole or in part, any element of the solutions, for any purpose whatsoever, including commercial, without Kwit's prior written consent. In the absence of such authorisation, Kwit may immediately terminate and delete the user's account without justification, and without refund, with or without cause, without notice, and take any appropriate action, including legal action.
All elements of the solutions, including their documentation, remain the full property of Kwit. The user is expressly forbidden to use the elements of the solutions in a manner that does not comply with these conditions, including the following:
IN THE EVENT OF ANY INFRINGEMENT OF ITS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS, KWIT HAS THE RIGHT TO BRING AN ACTION FOR COUNTERFEITING EITHER BEFORE THE CIVIL OR ADMINISTRATIVE COURTS TO OBTAIN COMPENSATION OR BEFORE THE REPRESSIVE COURTS TO OBTAIN CRIMINAL SANCTIONS. THE VIOLATION OF COPYRIGHT CONSTITUTES THE OFFENCE OF COUNTERFEITING PUNISHABLE BY A FINE OF 300,000 EUROS AND 3 YEARS' IMPRISONMENT. ADDITIONAL PENALTIES, SUCH AS CLOSURE OF THE ESTABLISHMENT, CONFISCATION, PUBLICATION BY POSTING THE COURT DECISION, MAY ALSO BE IMPOSED.
The user guarantees Kwit against any action brought against it or any complaint brought against it as a result of the use of the solutions in conditions that do not comply with these General Conditions. Besides, the user will be the only responsible for the use of his identification elements (email and password) by third parties, actions or statements made through his member account and guarantees Kwit against any request in this regard. This guarantee covers any sum that Kwit would be required to pay in any way whatsoever, including attorney's fees and legal costs recognised or ordered.
Kwit will endeavour, as far as possible, to keep its solutions permanently accessible but cannot be held responsible for any failure to operate or for any inability to access the solutions due to external circumstances, in particular, the network or the way it is connected to the network. Kwit may decide to interrupt access to its solutions for maintenance or update purposes. Kwit will take all appropriate measures to ensure that the user is as well informed as possible of the interruption. Kwit cannot be held responsible for the consequences of these interruptions for the user or any third party.
In the event of non-compliance by the user with any of the provisions of these general terms and conditions of use or the supply of inaccurate or misleading information, and/or the impersonation of a user, KWIT reserves the right to suspend or terminate the user's member account immediately and without compensation and to refuse access, temporarily or permanently, to all or part of the features.
(a) Intuitu personae:
The present contract may not be modified, ceded, contributed or transferred in any form whatsoever.
(b) Independence of Clauses:
It is formally agreed between the Parties that any tolerance or waiver by one of the Parties, in the implementation of all or part of the commitments provided for in this document, whatever the frequency and duration, shall not constitute an amendment to this document, nor shall it be likely to create any right whatsoever. If a clause of the present contract is cancelled, its nullity shall not affect the other provisions, nor affect the validity of the present contract as a whole. The Parties shall then endeavour to amend the invalid provision so that it complies with the rule while respecting the balance and objectives of this Agreement.
(c) Force majeure:
The obligations stipulated in these general conditions shall be suspended in the event of an act of force majeure. Kwit cannot be held responsible for any delay or non-performance of services. If the force majeure event lasts more than forty days, either party may terminate the current package with immediate effect, without compensation.
(d) Changes to this contract:
Kwit reserves the right to modify these General Terms and Conditions. In this case, the user will be informed of these changes at the same time as the uploading of the new General Terms and Conditions.
Kwit invites the user to refer to the General Terms and Conditions at each visit in order to consult the latest version of these Terms and Conditions available online, at all times.
The user may, subject to prior notification to KWIT, voluntarily terminate the Services if he or she does not wish the contractual relationship to be governed by the new General Terms and Conditions.
These General Terms and Conditions are governed by French law
If any of the provisions of the General Terms and Conditions should be held invalid or declared invalid under any law, regulation or following a final decision of a competent court, the other provisions shall retain their full force and scope.
In the event of difficulties in the interpretation or execution of this Agreement, the Parties shall endeavour to resolve their disputes amicably, in which case the Parties shall engage in mediation before proceeding with any legal action.
These General Terms and Conditions consist of 13 articles.
Kwit is based on scientific literature in order to offer you the best service to successfully quit smoking !
French health authorities consider cognitive and behavioral techniques as the only approved non-drug approach for smoking cessation (best practices, 2014). Cognitive and behavioral therapies can be used as first-line treatments with high levels of proof (Hartmann-Boyce et al., 2021).
Kwit’s benevolent and gratitude-based approach have shown their efficacy, for example in the management of depressive symptoms (Iodice et al, 2021).
According to the transtheoretical model of change (Prochaska, DiClemente & Norcross, 1992), behavioral change is a step-by-step process. Each step is associated with specific strategies. The COM-B model (Michie, Van Stralen & West, 2011) shows the importance of several factors contributing to a successful change: opportunity, self-efficacy, motivation.
Only a few programs integrate those three factors. That’s why we have created a 9-step intervention following motivational interviewing principles and using cognitive and behavioral strategies. In accordance with the above-cited models, this program aims to reinforce users’ willingness to change, to fight difficulties and barriers to smoking cessation, to challenge themselves, and to plan their quit date. This program was designed for people at the preparation stage, which corresponds to this state of mind: “I want to change, but I don’t know how to do it”.
Two standardized and validated questionnaires are used during the program: Fagerström's test for nicotine dependence, and Horn's test to evaluate the type of dependence. Several behavioral change techniques were used to design the 9-step path. Breathing exercises are provided to the users as a strategy to overcome cravings (Loftalian et al, 2020).
Accomplishments to be unlocked within the app are based upon data from the scientific literature. For environmental accomplishments, see Zafeiridou et al. (2018). For accomplishments related to smoke and tobacco components (nicotine, tars, carbon monoxide), see Calafat et al. (2004). For health-related accomplishments, see the references on the CDC and the WHO websites.
The mood tracker allows the user to increase their knowledge about themselves, about their reactions, and to stay proactive in the management of their mental wellbeing (Church et al., 2010; Gay et al., 2011). Mental health is a component of general health, according to the WHO definition. Being in a positive mood has benefits on physical health and reinforces engagement in healthier behaviors. Tracking one’s mood also allows one to determine which contexts trigger definite feelings, so that one can adapt their environment and routine in order to increase their wellbeing.
Users can set personal time and/or money goals. Goal setting is a well-known behavior change technique (see Michie's taxonomy).
Journaling has been studied, particularly in people struggling with anxiety, depression (Smyth et al., 2018), and major depressive disorder (Krpan et al., 2013).
HAS, 2014. Arrêt de la consommation de tabac : du dépistage individuel au maintien de l’abstinence en premier recours.
Hartmann-Boyce J, Livingstone-Banks J, Ordóñez-Mena JM, Fanshawe TR, Lindson N, Freeman SC, Sutton AJ, Theodoulou A, Aveyard P. Behavioural interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jan 4;1:CD013229.
Iodice JA, Malouff JM, Schutte NS (2021) The Association between Gratitude and Depression: A Meta-Analysis. Int J Depress Anxiety 4:024.
Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. C. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47(9), 1102–1114.
Michie, S., van Stralen, M.M. & West, R. The behaviour change wheel: A new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implementation Sci 6, 42 (2011)
Fagerström K. Determinants of tobacco use and renaming the FTND to the Fagerstrom Test for Cigarette Dependence. Nicotine Tob Res. 2012 Jan;14(1):75-8. doi: 10.1093/ntr/ntr137. Epub 2011 Oct 24. PMID: 22025545
Frederick F. Ikard, Dorothy E. Green & Daniel Horn (1969) A Scale to Differentiate between Types of Smoking as Related to the Management of Affect, International Journal of the Addictions, 4:4, 649-659
Lotfalian S, Spears CA, Juliano LM. The effects of mindfulness-based yogic breathing on craving, affect, and smoking behavior. Psychol Addict Behav. 2020 Mar;34(2):351-359. doi: 10.1037/adb0000536. Epub 2019 Nov 21. PMID: 31750699; PMCID: PMC7064378.
Zafeiridou M, Hopkinson NS & Voulvoulis N. Environmental Science & Technology. 2018 52 (15), 8087-8094
Calafat AM, Polzin GM, Saylor J, et alDetermination of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide yields in the mainstream smoke of selected international cigarettesTobacco Control 2004;13:45-51.
Karen Church, Eve Hoggan, and Nuria Oliver. 2010. A study of mobile mood awareness and communication through MobiMood. In Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Extending Boundaries (NordiCHI '10). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 128–137.
Gay, G., Pollak, J. P., Adams, P., & Leonard, J. P. (2011). Pilot Study of Aurora, a Social, Mobile-Phone-Based Emotion Sharing and Recording System. Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology, 5(2), 325–332.
Smyth, J. M., Johnson, J. A., Auer, B. J., Lehman, E., Talamo, G., & Sciamanna, C. N. (2018). Online Positive Affect Journaling in the Improvement of Mental Distress and Well-Being in General Medical Patients With Elevated Anxiety Symptoms: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR mental health, 5(4), e11290. https://doi.org/10.2196/11290
Krpan, K. M., Kross, E., Berman, M. G., Deldin, P. J., Askren, M. K., & Jonides, J. (2013). An everyday activity as a treatment for depression: the benefits of expressive writing for people diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Journal of affective disorders, 150(3), 1148–1151.
Articles written by Dr. Sibylle Mauries, psychiatrist and sleep specialist. Edited by Dr. Mickael Ehrminger, public health researcher.
- Patterson, F., Grandner, M. A., Malone, S. K., Rizzo, A., Davey, A., & Edwards, D. G. (2019). Sleep as a Target for Optimized Response to Smoking Cessation Treatment. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 21(2), 139–148.
- Goulet et al. (2013). Guide pratique pour le traitement de l’insomnie
- Dauvilliers Y., Billiard M. (2012). Les troubles du sommeil (2e édition). Elsevier Masson.
Articles written by Anne-Laure Laratte, dietitian. Edited by Dr. Mickael Ehrminger, public health researcher.
- Jain P, Danaei G, Manson JE, Robins JM, Hernán MA. Weight Gain After Smoking Cessation and Lifestyle Strategies to Reduce it. Epidemiology. 2020 Jan;31(1):7-14.
- Germeroth LJ, Levine MD. Postcessation weight gain concern as a barrier to smoking cessation: Assessment considerations and future directions. Addict Behav. 2018 Jan;76:250-257.
- Robertson, L., McGee, R., & Hancox, R. J. (2014). Smoking cessation and subsequent weight change. Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, 16(6), 867–871.
Articles written by Dr. Jean-Del Burdairon, psychiatrist and addictologist. Edited by Dr. Mickael Ehrminger, public health researcher.
- McLaughlin, I., Dani, J. A., & De Biasi, M. (2015). Nicotine withdrawal. Current topics in behavioral neurosciences, 24, 99–123.
- Jarvis M. J. (2004). Why people smoke. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 328(7434), 277–279.
- Baker, T. B., Breslau, N., Covey, L., & Shiffman, S. (2012). DSM criteria for tobacco use disorder and tobacco withdrawal: a critique and proposed revisions for DSM-5. Addiction (Abingdon, England), 107(2), 263–275.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (2009) Abstinent Smokers' Nicotinic Receptors Take More Than a Month to Normalize
You can send an email to :
We usually respond within 5 working days.
As you browse the Kwit website, cookies are stored on your browser. Some of them are required for the proper functioning of the website. The rest can be disabled, but their use is strongly recommended if you want to enjoy optimal navigation.